Energy, Environmental, and Natural Resource Systems Law Program
Reports & Publications


Project Directors and Editors:
Professor Gabriel Eckstein, Texas A&M University School of Law
Professor Amy Hardberger, Texas Tech University School of Law

This series of reports presents the results of an ongoing study investigating the state groundwater laws and regulations across the United States.  Professor Gabriel Eckstein at Texas A&M University School of Law and Professor Amy Hardberger at Texas Tech University School of Law developed a matrix to ascertain chief components and characteristics of the groundwater legal regime of each state.  Student researchers then used the matrix to respond to a standardized set of questions about the groundwater laws and regulations of each state. To date, 29 states have been surveyed.  States included in Volume I include: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, and Washington.  States included in Volume II include: Alaska, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Montana, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wyoming.

In August 2017, Volume I was issued as a preliminary version to generate feedback about the methodology, accuracy of information, organization, and usefulness of the project and its findings.  Building on the numerous comments and suggestions received, Volume I was reissued in April 2020 as a second edition, offering more expanded and comprehensive surveys of the groundwater laws and regulations for the thirteen states in that volume.  Volume II, comprising surveys for sixteen states, has now been added to the compilation.  An additional state survey is now being researched and assembled for the remaining 21 states, and will be released on this page once it is completed.

Groundwater Laws and Regulations Survey of Sixteen U.S Vol. ll
The objective of the project is to develop substantial comparisons of groundwater governance principles, strategies, issues, and challenges across the United States.  Those comparisons will be undertaken once the individual surveys are finalized.  Collectively, the surveys and analyses should aid states and federal government to explore new mechanisms and approaches for the sound management of groundwater resources, as well as serve as a useful resource for property owners, water rights holders, water managers, the private sector, and the public in general.

To download the reports, please click on the respective report image above.

Feedback, comments, and suggestions about the content and substance of the project should be sent to:
Professor Gabriel Eckstein:
Professor Amy Hardberger:

US-groundwater-report-tmbThe first edition of Volume I is available here